Many tribes were involved in the War of 1812, and Indians fought for both sides as auxiliary troops in the Civil War. Scouting the enemy was recognized as a particular skill of the Native American soldier. In 1866, the U.S. Army established its Indian Scouts to exploit this aptitude. The Scouts were active in the American West in the late 1800s and early 1900s, accompanying Gen. John J. Pershing's expedition to Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa in 1916. They were deactivated in 1947 when their last member retired from the Army in ceremonies at Ft. Huachuca, Arizona. Native Americans from Indian Territory were also recruited by Teddy Roosevelt's Rough Riders and saw action in Cuba in the Spanish-American War in 1898. As the military entered the 20th century, American Indians had already made a substantial contribution through military service and were on the brink of playing an even larger role. Contributions In Combat It is estimated that more than 12,000 American Indians served in the United States military in World War I. Approximately 600 Oklahoma Indians, mostly Chotaw and Cherokee, were assigned to the 142nd Infantry of the 36th Texas-Oklahoma National Guard Division. The 142nd saw action in France and its soldiers were widely recognized for their contributions in battle. Four men from this unit were awarded the Croix de Guerre, while others received the Church War Cross for gallantry.   The outbreak of World War II brought American Indians warriors back to the battlefield in defense of their homeland. Although now eligible for the draft by virtue of the Snyder Act, which gave citizenship to American Indians in 1924, conscription alone does not account for the disproportionate number of Indians who joined the armed services. More than 44,000 American Indians, out of a total Native American population of less than 350,000, served with distinction between 1941 and 1945 in both European and Pacific theaters of war. Native American men and women on the home front also showed an intense desire to serve their country, and were an integral part of the war effort. More than 40,000 Indian people left their reservations to work in ordnance depots, factories, and other war industries. American Indians also invested more than $50 million in war bonds, and contributed generously to the Red Cross and the Army and Navy Relief societies.   Battle-experienced American Indian troops from World War II were joined by newly recruited Native Americans to fight Communist aggression during the Korean conflict. The Native American's strong sense of patriotism and courage emerged once again during the Vietnam era. More than 42,000 Native Americans, more than 90 percent of them volunteers, fought in Vietnam. Native American contributions in United States military combat continued in the 1980s and 1990s as they saw duty in Grenada, Panama, Somalia, and the Persian Gulf. Native Americans As Warriors As the 20th century comes to a close, there are nearly 190,00 Native American military veterans. It is well recognized that, historically, Native Americans have the highest record of service per capita when compared to other ethnic groups. The reasons behind this disproportionate contribution are complex and deeply rooted in traditional American Indian culture. In many respects, Native Americans are no different from others who volunteer for military service. They do, however, have distinctive cultural values which drive them to serve their country. One such value is their proud warrior tradition.   In part, the warrior tradition is a willingness to engage the enemy in battle. This characteristic has been clearly demonstrated by the courageous deeds of Native Americans in combat. However, the warrior tradition is best exemplified by the following qualities said to be inherent to most if not all Native American societies: strength, honor, pride, devotion, and wisdom. These qualities make a perfect fit with military tradition. Strength To be an American Indian warrior is to have physical, mental, and spiritual strength. A warrior must be prepared to overpower the enemy and face death head-on.
Native Americans in the U.S. Military
Navajo Code Talker Fact Sheet
Navajo Code Talker Dictionary
Bernstein, Alison R. American Indians and World War II: Toward a New Era in Indian Affairs Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.

Bixler, Margaret T. Winds of Freedom: The Story of the Navajo Code Talkers of World War II. Darien, CT: Two Bytes Pub. Co., 1992.
"Comanches Again Called for Army Code Service." New York Times (13 Dec. 1940): 16.
Davis, Goode, Jr. "Proud Tradition of the Marines' Navajo Code Talkers: They Fought With Words-Words No Japanese Could Fathom." Marine Corps League 46, no.1 (Spring 1990): 16-26.
"DOD Hails Indian Code Talkers." Sea Services Weekly (27 Nov. 1992): 9-10.

Donovan, Bill. "Navajo Code Talkers Made History Without Knowing It." Arizona Republic (14 Aug. 1992): B6.
Hafford, William E. "The Navajo Code Talkers." Arizona Highways 65, no.2 (Feb. 1989): 36-45.

Hirschfelder, Arlene and Martha Kreipe de Montano. The Native American Almanac: A Portrait of Native America Today. New York: Prentice Hall, 1993. OCLC 27813313. [See pp. 227-36, "Native American and Military Service," which includes some statistics on participation in 20th Century Wars; a list of Medal of Honor winners; short histories of Navajo, Comanche, and Choctaw code talkers; a brief bibliography of literature concerning veterans; and an extremely incomplete list of Navy ships named for Native American people, tribes, place names, and other words from Indian languages.]

Jere, Franco. Patriotism on Trial: Native Americans in World War II. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1990.
Kahn, David. The Codebreakers. New York: Macmillan, 1967.
See pp. 549-50.
Kawano, Kenji. Warriors: Navajo Code Talkers. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland Pub. Co., 1990.
King, Jodi A. "DOD Dedicates Code Talkers Display" Pentagram (24 Sep. 1992): 3.

Langille, Vernon. "Indian War Call." Leatherneck 31, No.3 (Mar.1948): 37-40.
Marder, Murrey. "Navajo Code Talkers." Marine Corps Gazette (Sep. 1945): 10-11.
Marine Corps University Libraries. Navajo Code Talkers FAQ
McCoy, Ron. "Navajo Code Talkers of World War II: Indian Marines Befuddled the Enemy." American West 18, no.6 (Nov./Dec. 1981): 67-73, 75.

National Archives, People at War, New Roles: The Codetalkers. [Letter from Philip Johnson which convinced the Commandant of teh Mrine Corps to employ Navajo Indians as radiomen to provide secure communications.]
Paul, Doris Atkinson. The Navajo Code Talkers. Philadelphia: Dorance, 1973.
"Pentagon Ceremony Praises American Indians." Crosswind (13 Nov.1992): 14-15.
"Pentagon Honors Navajos, Code Nobody Could Break." Arizona Republic (18 Sep. 1992): A9.

Thomas, Robert McG. Jr. "Carl Gorman, Code Talker in World War II, Dies at 90," New York Times (1 Feb. 1998): 27.
USMC. Navajo Dictionary. 15 June 1945. (Code word dictionary).
Watson, Bruce. "Navajo Code Talkers: A Few Good Men." Smithsonian 24, no.5 (Aug. 1993): 34-40, 42-43. Unpublished Sources: Item in The Navy Department Library Vertical File

Reference Section, History and Museums Division, HQMC. "Navajo Code Talkers in World War II." 14 May 1982. 2 pp. Archival Records Relating to Navajo Code Talker, World War II
Marine Corps Historical Center, Washington Navy Yard, Washington DC. 20374-0580. Tel.(202)433-3841.

Oral interviews with former Navajo code talkers during the first reunion of Navajo Code Talkers of World War II at Window Rock AZ, 9-10 July 1971.
Marine Corps Oral History Program:
John Benally, 32 pp; Judge W. Dean Wilson (William Dean Yazzie), 20 pp; Paul Blatchford, 27 pp; Sidney Bedoni, 13 pp; Alex Williams, Sr., 21 pp; Carl Gorman, 3 pp; Wilfred Billey, 13 pp, Jimmy King, Sr.,36 pp.
National Archives and Records Administration (NARA):
Textual Reference Branch, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740.

RG 127. Entry 18. Office of the Commandant-General Correspondence (Jan. 1939-Jun. 1950):
File #1535-75, folders: 13-14, 17-20.
File #2185-20, folder 4.

RG 457. Utilization of American Indians as Communications Linguists. Special Research History (SRH) #120, 107 pp.
Congressional Medal of Honor - Native American Code Talkers
Navajo Code Talkers: World War II Fact Sheet
Research by Alexander Molnar Jr., U.S. Marine Corps/U.S. Army (Ret.)
Prepared by the Navy & Marine Corps WWII Commemorative Committee

Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Peleliu, Iwo Jima: the Navajo code talkers took part in every assault the U.S. Marines conducted in the Pacific from 1942 to 1945. They served in all six Marine divisions, Marine Raider battalions and Marine parachute units, transmitting messages by telephone and radio in their native language -- a code that the Japanese never broke. The idea to use Navajo for secure communications came from Philip Johnston, the son of a missionary to the Navajos and one of the few non-Navajos who spoke their language fluently. Johnston, reared on the Navajo reservation, was a World War I veteran who knew of the military's search for a code that would withstand all attempts to decipher it. He also knew that Native American languages--notably Choctaw--had been used in World War I to encode messages.   Johnston believed Navajo answered the military requirement for an undecipherable code because Navajo is an unwritten language of extreme complexity. Its syntax and tonal qualities, not to mention dialects, make it unintelligible to anyone without extensive exposure and training. It has no alphabet or symbols, and is spoken only on the Navajo lands of the American Southwest. One estimate indicates that less than 30 non-Navajos, none of them Japanese, could understand the language at the outbreak of World War II.   Early in 1942, Johnston met with Major General Clayton B. Vogel, the commanding general of Amphibious Corps, Pacific Fleet, and his staff to convince them of the Navajo language's value as code. Johnston staged tests under simulated combat conditions, demonstrating that Navajos could encode, transmit, and decode a three-line English message in 20 seconds. Machines of the time required 30 minutes to perform the same job. Convinced, Vogel recommended to the Commandant of the Marine Corps that the Marines recruit 200 Navajos.   In May 1942, the first 29 Navajo recruits attended boot camp. Then, at Camp Pendleton, Oceanside, California, this first group created the Navajo code. They developed a dictionary and numerous words for military terms. The dictionary and all code words had to be memorized during training. Once a Navajo code talker completed his training, he was sent to a Marine unit deployed in the Pacific theater. The code talkers' primary job was to talk, transmitting information on tactics and troop movements, orders and other vital battlefield communications over telephones and radios. They also acted as messengers, and performed general Marine duties.   Praise for their skill, speed and accuracy accrued throughout the war. At Iwo Jima, Major Howard Connor, 5th Marine Division signal officer, declared, "Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima." Connor had six Navajo code talkers working around the clock during the first two days of the battle. Those six sent and received over 800 messages, all without error.   The Japanese, who were skilled code breakers, remained baffled by the Navajo language. The Japanese chief of intelligence, Lieutenant General Seizo Arisue, said that while they were able to decipher the codes used by the U.S. Army and Army Air Corps, they never cracked the code used by the Marines. The Navajo code talkers even stymied a Navajo soldier taken prisoner at Bataan. (About 20 Navajos served in the U.S. Army in the Philippines.) The Navajo soldier, forced to listen to the jumbled words of talker transmissions, said to a code talker after the war, "I never figured out what you guys who got me into all that trouble were saying."   In 1942, there were about 50,000 Navajo tribe members. As of 1945, about 540 Navajos served as Marines. From 375 to 420 of those trained as code talkers; the rest served in other capacities.   Navajo remained potentially valuable as code even after the war. For that reason, the code talkers, whose skill and courage saved both American lives and military engagements, only recently earned recognition from the Government and the public. The Navajo Code Talker's Dictionary When a Navajo code talker received a message, what he heard was a string of seemingly unrelated Navajo words. The code talker first had to translate each Navajo word into its English equivalent. Then he used only the first letter of the English equivalent in spelling an English word. Thus, the Navajo words "wol-la-chee" (ant), "be-la-sana" (apple) and "tse-nill" (axe) all stood for the letter "a." One way to say the word "Navy" in Navajo code would be "tsah (needle) wol-la-chee (ant) ah-keh-di- glini (victor) tsah-ah-dzoh (yucca)."   Most letters had more than one Navajo word representing them. Not all words had to be spelled out letter by letter. The developers of the original code assigned Navajo words to represent about 450 frequently used military terms that did not exist in the Navajo language. Several examples: "besh- lo" (iron fish) meant "submarine," "dah-he- tih-hi" (hummingbird) meant "fighter plane" and "debeh-li-zine" (black street) meant "squad." Department of Defense Honors Navajo Veterans Long unrecognized because of the continued value of their language as a security classified code, the Navajo code talkers of World War II were honored for their contributions to defense on Sept. 17, 1992, at the Pentagon, Washington, D.C.   Thirty-five code talkers, all veterans of the U.S. Marine Corps, attended the dedication of the Navajo code talker exhibit. The exhibit includes a display of photographs, equipment and the original code, along with an explanation of how the code worked.   Dedication ceremonies included speeches by the then-Deputy Secretary of Defense Donald Atwood, U.S. Senator John McCain of Arizona and Navajo President Peterson Zah. The Navajo veterans and their families traveled to the ceremony from their homes on the Navajo Reservation, which includes parts of Arizona, New Mexico and Utah.   The Navajo code talker exhibit is a regular stop on the Pentagon tour. THE MARINE HYMN
Black feet
The Native American Indians Participation in the United States Military :

The Navajo Code Talkers recieved the Congressional Gold Medal
(Prepared for the United States Department of Defense by CEHIP Incorporated, Washington, DC, in  partnership with Native American advisors, Rodger Bucholz, William Fields, Ursula P. Roach. Washington: Department of Defense, 1996.)
Related resources:

The American Indian Medal of Honor Recipients were:
The Navajo Code Talkers in World War II: A Bibliography
The Navajo Code Talker Dictionary was a Long Tradition Of Participation when the American Indians  having participated with distinction in United States military in actions for more than 200 years. Their courage, determination, and fighting spirit were recognized by American military leaders as        early as the 18th century.
20th Century Warriors:
I think the Indians can be made of excellent use, as scouts and light troops stated
Gen. George Washington in 1778.
We honor our veterans for their bravery and because by seeing death on the battlefield, they truly know the greatness of life. The American Indian soldiers, sailors and marines, airmen have all fought heroically in all of this century's wars and armed conflicts. They have not only been formally recognized for their bravery through military decoration but through anecdotal observation as well.
The real secret which makes the Indian such an outstanding soldier is his enthusiasm for the fight. --
A U.S. Army Major, in 1912 spoke more importantly, however, on the warrior's spiritual strength. Many of their traditional cultures recognize that war disrupts the natural order of life and causes a spiritual  imbalance, and to survive the chaos of war is to gain a more intimate knowledge of life. Therefore the         military service is a unique way to develop an inner strength that is valued in all Native American societies.
They have a strong sense of inner spirituality which is also a part of the Indian character. Many Native Americans that are raised on rural or remote reservations, in the environment that fosters self- reliance,  have an introspection and a meditative way of thinking. Their character traits can be very beneficial when adapting to the occasional isolation of military life in times of both peace and war. With their Honor, Pride and Devotion the Warriors are honored , and also honored by their family and their tribes. Before going into service and upon their return,the warriors are recognized by family and community. Recognition takes place through private family gatherings and or through such public ceremonies as tribal dances and  intertribal ceremonies.

My people honored me as a warrior. We had a feast and my parents and grandparents thanked everyone who prayed for my safe return. We had a "special" [dance] and I remembered as we circled the drum, I got a feeling of pride. I felt good inside because that's the way the Kiowa people tell you that you've done well. --Kiowa Vietnam Veteran

Being a warrior in traditional American Indian society gives one a sense of pride and a sense of accomplishment at a time in life when self-esteem is just developing. Becoming a warrior brings status to young men and women in their culture. The ceremonies that honor the warrior create a special place in the tribe's spiritual world.

After I got home, my uncles sat me down and had me tell them what it [the war] was all about. One of them had been in the service in World War II and knew what war was like. We talked about what went on over there, about killing and the waste, and one of my uncles said that God's laws are against war. They never talked about those kinds of things with me before. --Cherokee Vietnam Veteran United States military service provides an outlet for Native Americans to fulfill a cultural purpose rooted in tradition -- to fight and defend their homeland. This purpose is particularly important since it comes when young people of the tribe are normally not old enough to assume a leadership role in their traditional culture. The cultural expectation to be a warrior provides a purpose in life and is an important step in gaining status in Native America culture.

When I went to Germany, I never thought about war honors, or the four "coups" which an old-time Crow warrior had to earn in battle....But afterwards, when I came back and went through this telling of war deeds ceremony... lo and behold I [had] completed the four requirements to become a chief. --Crow World War II Veteran

Native American warriors are devoted to the survival of their people and their homeland. If necessary, warriors will lay down their lives for the preservation of their culture, for death to the American Indian warrior is but another step in the advancement of life. It is understood that the warrior's spirit lives on eternally. So, warriors do not fear death, but rather regard it as the ultimate sacrifice for their own and their people's continued survival. Wisdom The warrior seeks wisdom. Wisdom, as used in this context, means the sum total of formal learning and worldly experiences. In wartime, those Native Americans seeing heavy combat had to learn how to survive, often using skills that may unit commanders thought were inherent to the American Indian's cultural background. A Sac and Fox/Creek Korean veteran remarked:

My platoon commander always sent me out on patrols. He. . . probably thought that I could track down the enemy. I don't know for sure, but I guess he figured that Indians were warriors and hunters by nature.

Many American Indians (as well as non-Indian volunteers) joined the military in World War I to satisfy their sense of adventure. Most had never left the confines of their hometown, much less marched on the battlefields of Europe. These experiences provided a wisdom through exposure to other people and cultures. This was sometimes threatening to the elders of a tribe, who feared that this newfound worldliness would cause unwanted change to their culture. Over time, however, this wisdom of worldly events and peoples was accepted by tribal leaders. Today, Native Americans are increasingly exposed to the non- Indian world through movies and television. Although the military is still an avenue for seeing the world, it has, in the latter half of the 20th century, also provided other types of wisdom. Military service offers excellent educational and job skill opportunities for Native American me and women who frequently come from educationally disadvantaged communities.   Wisdom can also be gained from interaction with others. Military policy in the 20th century has preferred assimilating the American Indian into regular units. Although some divisions had more Native American troops than others, there were never all-Indian units. This meant that Indians and non-Indians were placed in close-knit groups, perhaps each experiencing each other's culture up close for the first time.

There was a camaraderie [in the Air Force] that transcends ethnicity when you serve your country overseas in wartime. --Sen. Ben Nighthorse Campbell, Cheyenne Korean veteran

Similarly, intertribal relationships were developed, sometimes with a person who was a traditional "enemy." Many times these intercultural and intertribal contacts broke through stereotypes and resulted in lifelong friendships, friendships that otherwise might never have been cultivated.

Thanks to my military service [in the Navy], I now have friends in 500 tribes. --Lakota Korean veteran The Warrior Tradition Carries On The requirements for successful military service -- strength, bravery, pride, and wisdom - match those of the Indian warrior. Military service affords an outlet for combat that fulfills a culturally determined role for the warrior. Therefore, the military is an opportunity for cultural self-fulfillment. By sending young tribal members off to be warriors, they return with experiences that make them valued members of their society. Finally, the military provides educational opportunities, which allow Native American veterans to return to their community with productive job skills to improve their quality of life.

With the 21st century on the horizon, the United States military can be expected to provide continuing opportunity for Native American men and women. For their part, Native Americans can be expected to carry on their centuries-old warrior tradition- serving with pride, courage, and distinction. American Indian Medal of Honor Recipients In the 20th century, five American Indians have been among those soldiers to be distinguished by receiving the United States' highest military honor: the Medal of Honor. Given for military heroism "above and beyond the call of duty," these warriors exhibited extraordinary bravery in the face of the enemy and, in two cases, made the ultimate sacrifice for their country.

Jack C. Montgomery. A Cherokee from Oklahoma, and a First Lieutenant with the 45th Infantry Division Thunderbirds. On 22 February 1944, near Padiglione, Italy, Montgomery's rifle platoon was under fire by three echelons of enemy forces, when he single-handedly attacked all three positions, taking prisoners in the process. As a result of his courage, Montgomery's actions demoralized the enemy and inspired his men to defeat the Axis troops.

Ernest Childers . A Creek from Oklahoma, and a First Lieutenant with the 45th Infantry Division. Childers received the Medal of Honor for heroic action in 1943 when, up against machine gun fire, he and eight men charged the enemy. Although suffering a broken foot in the assault, Childers ordered covering fire and advanced up the hill, single-handedly killing two snipers, silencing two machine gun nests, and capturing an enemy mortar observer.

Van Barfoot . A Choctaw from Mississippi, and a Second Lieutenant in the Thunderbirds. On 23 May 1944, during the breakout from Anzio to Rome, Barfoot knocked out two machine gun nests and captured 17 German soldiers. Later that same day, he repelled a German tank assault, destroyed a Nazi fieldpiece and while returning to camp carried two wounded commanders to safety.

Mitchell Red Cloud Jr. A Winnebago from Wisconsin, and a Corporal in Company E., 19th Infantry Regiment in Korea. On 5 November 1950, Red Cloud was on a ridge guarding his company command post when he was surprised by Chinese communist forces. He sounded the alarm and stayed in his position firing his automatic rifle and point-blank to check the assault. This gave his company time to consolidate their defenses. After being severely wounded by enemy fire, he refused assistance and continued firing upon the enemy until he was fatally wounded. His heroic action prevented the enemy from overrunning his company's position and gained time for evacuation of the wounded.

Charles George. A Cherokee from North Carolina, and Private First Class in Korea when he was killed on 30 November 1952. During battle, George threw himself upon a grenade and smothered it with his body. In doing so, he sacrificed his own life but saved the lives of his comrades. For this brave and selfless act, George was posthumously award the Medal of Honor in 1954. Navajo Code Talkers: A Select Bibliography

Jimmy King, a Navajo instructor, translated the Marine Hymn into Navajo:

We have conquered our enemies   Nin hokeh bi-kheh a-na-ih-la
All over the world   Ta-al-tso-go na-he-seel-kai
On land and on sea   Nih-bi-kah-gi do tah kah-gi
Everywhere we fight   Ta-al-tso-go en-da-de-pah
True and loyal to our duty   Tsi-di-da-an-ne ne-tay-yah
We are know by that Ay be nihe hozeen
United States Marines   Washindon be Akalh Bi-kosi-la
To be one is a great thing.   Ji-lengo ba-hozhon

        Our flag waves Ni-he da-na-ah-taj ihla
From dawn to setting sun.   Yel khol-go e-e-ah
We have fought every place Day-ne tal-al-tso go enta-she-jah
where we could take a gun Tal-tso-go entas-se-pah
From northern lands Ha-kaz dineh-ih be-hay-jah
To southern tropic scenes, Ado ta aokhek-ash-shen
We are known to be tireless   Do ni-din-da-hi ol-yeh
The United States Marines   Washindon be Akalh-bi Khos

May we live in peace hereafter   Hozo-go nay-yeltay to
We have conquered all our foes, A-na-oh bi-keh de-dlihn
No force in the world we cannot Ni-hi-keh di-dlini ta-etin
We know of no fear   Yeh-wol-ye hi-he a-din
If the Army and the Navy   Sila-go-tsoi do chah-lakai
Ever look on Heaven's scenes, Ya-ansh-go das dez e e
United States Marines will be Washindon be Akalh-bi Kosi la
there Living in peace.   Hozo-g-kay-ha-tehn
Nez Perce
Sault St. Marie
Here are some tribal Flags that maybe of interest to you these and many others may be purchased for a fee. Just click on the link below if you are interested
  Indian Removal Policy
   Developing & Applying the Removal Act
   Andrew Jackson Addresses Congress.

In seven of his eight annual messages to Congress, US President Andrew Jackson devotes several paragraphs to the policy of Indian removal (without ever mentioning the Indian Removal Act of 1830 by name), along with other oblique references to the perception and treatment of aboriginal Americans. To a certain extent the Indian issue defines his Presidency; no other policy spans Jackson's entire eight-year term with such a steady concentration of resources.
Being a British Columbian, living in a Canadian province still struggling with both its Indian affairs legacy and its present relations with its aboriginal inhabitants, what disturbs me most when reading these documents is just how little our language for discussing these issues has changed in 170 years, how subtly and insidiously ingrained the patterns of thought apparent in these messages remain in our present culture.
First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1829
In which Jackson reassures the Indian tribes that their treatment under his administration will be liberal, just and in accordance with the beliefs of the American people:
"It will be my sincere and constant desire to observe toward the Indian tribes within our limits a just and liberal policy, and to give that humane and considerate attention to their rights and their wants which is consistent with the habits of our Government and the feelings of our people." -- Andrew Jackson
First Annual Message to Congress, December 8, 1829
In which, in the closing paragraphs of the speech, Jackson lays out his policy for relocating Indians of the east to territories west of the Mississippi. This policy becomes law as the Indian Removal Act by his next annual address. An excerpt from the speech:
  "Our conduct toward these people is deeply interesting to our national character. Their present condition, contrasted with what they once were, makes a most powerful appeal to our sympathies. Our ancestors found them the uncontrolled possessors of these vast regions. By persuasion and force they have been made to retire from river to river and from mountain to mountain, until some of the tribes have become extinct and others have left but remnants to preserve for awhile their once terrible names. Surrounded by the whites with their arts of civilization, which by destroying the resources of the savage doom him to weakness and decay, the fate of the Mohegan, the Narragansett, and the Delaware is fast overtaking the Choctaw, the Cherokee, and the Creek. That this fate surely awaits them if they remain within the limits of the states does not admit of a doubt. Humanity and national honor demand that every effort should be made to avert so great a calamity." -- Andrew Jackson
Second Annual Message to Congress, December 6, 1830
Jackson announces Indian Removal nearing consumation; the Chocktaw and Chickasaw peoples agree to relocation; this development will induce other tribes to follow; states his good-will toward aboriginal people;
  "Toward the aborigines of the country no one can indulge a more friendly feeling than myself, or would go further in attempting to reclaim them from their wandering habits and make them a happy, prosperous people." -- Andrew Jackson
Third Annual Message to Congress, December 6, 1831
Funds are appropriated for the removal of eastern tribes; treaty negotiation for actual removal of the Choctaw and Chickasaw underway; Cherokee registration in Georgia recommences with hopes of up to two-thirds participation; removal efforts concentrated in Ohio and Indiana where treaties extinguished all Ohio reservations; philanthropists and missionaries invited to help removed Indians advance "from barbarism to the habits and enjoyments of civilized life."
  "It is pleasing to reflect that results so beneficial, not only to the States immediately concerned, but to the harmony of the Union, will have been accomplished by measures equally advantageous to the Indians. What the native savages become when surrounded by a dense population and by mixing with the whites may be seen in the miserable remnants of a few Eastern tribes, deprived of political and civil rights, forbidden to make contracts, and subjected to guardians, dragging out a wretched existence, without excitement, without hope, and almost without thought." -- Andrew Jackson
Fourth Annual Message to Congress, December 4, 1832
Substantial deficit reduction despite Indian 'removal and preservation' costs; oblique reference to economics of converting Indian land first to public land, then selling parcels to settlers at cost; Sac and Fox uprising put down -- disaffected tribes 'dispersed or destroyed'; the 'wise and humane' Indian removal policy is steadily pursued and approaching consummation -- Secretary of War reports; Georgian Cherokees resist removal.
   "After a harassing warfare, prolonged by the nature of the country and by the difficulty of procuring subsistence, the Indians were entirely defeated, and the disaffected band dispersed or destroyed. The result has been creditable to the troops engaged in the service. Severe as is the lesson to the Indians, it was rendered necessary by their unprovoked aggressions, and it is to be hoped that its impression will be permanent and salutary." -- Andrew Jackson
Fifth Annual Message to Congress, December 3, 1833
Survivors of Sac and Fox War of 1832 removed west of Mississippi; 'inferior' Georgian Cherokee continue to resist 'force of circumstances' and refuse removal; Jackson reiterates removal and 'political reorganisation' form the best and only option for continued existence of eastern Indians.
   "My original convictions upon this subject have been confirmed by the course of events for several years, and experience is every day adding to their strength. That those tribes can not exist surrounded by our settlements and in continual contact with our citizens is certain. They have neither the intelligence, the industry, the moral habits, nor the desire of improvement which are essential to any favorable change in their condition. Established in the midst of another and a superior race, and without appreciating the causes of their inferiority or seeking to control them, they must necessarily yield to the force of circumstances and ere long disappear." -- Andrew Jackson
Sixth Annual Message to Congress, December 1, 1834
Military blocks 'inroads' of Western frontier Indians; Creek removal imminent, Seminole next, Cherokee stubbornly refuse against own best interests; Indian Trade and Intercourse Acto of 1834 made law, restricting treatied sovereignty of Western Indians.
   "I regret that the Cherokees east of the Mississippi have not yet determined as a community to remove. How long the personal causes which have heretofore retarded that ultimately inevitable measure will continue to operate I am unable to conjecture. It is certain, however, that delay will bring with it accumulated evils which will render their condition more and more unpleasant. The experience of every year adds to the conviction that emigration, and that alone, can preserve from destruction the remnant of the tribes yet living amongst us." -- Andrew Jackson
Seventh Annual Message to Congress, December 7, 1835
Inexplicably, Jackson makes no direct reference to Indian removal in this message, though it was in this year that the Seminole were ordered to leave Florida. In fact, the only reference to native issues is made obliquely in a paragraph concerning the sale of public lands, much of which were once treatied Indian territories.
  "The extraordinary receipts from the sales of the public lands invite you to consider what improvements the land system, and particularly the condition of the General Land Office, may require. At the time this institution was organized, near a quarter century ago, it would probably have been thought extravagant to anticipate for this period such an addition to its business as has been produced by the vast increase of those sales during the past and present years. It may also be observed that since the year 1812 the land offices and surveying districts have been greatly multiplied, and that numerous legislative enactments from year to year since that time have imposed a great amount of new and additional duties upon that office, while the want of a timely application of force commensurate with the care and labor required has caused the increasing embarrassment of accumulated arrears in the different branches of the establishment." -- Andrew Jackson
Eighth Annual Message to Congress, December 5, 1836
Indian wars force massive mobilisation of troops, militia and volunteers; Seminoles refuse to relocate and win early upper-hand in Second Seminole War; Urgent need for further appropriations to 'suppress hostilities;' Creek defeated and relocated West of Mississippi; Cherokee country pacified and secured by ongoing military vigilance; Mexico authorises expeditions to quell Indians beyond US frontier; Commissioner of Indian Affairs suggests larger military presence in Indian country to protect Western frontier from Indians, and the Indians from each other; Jackson prematurely declares Indian Removal to be consummated--Cherokee forcibly relocated two years later in 1838.
   "The national policy, founded alike in interest and in humanity, so long and so steadily pursued by this Government for the removal of the Indian tribes originally settled on this side of the Mississippi to the West of that river, may be said to have been consummated by the conclusion of the late treaty with the Cherokees." -- Andrew Jackson
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